TREM-1 activation is a potential key regulator in driving severe pathogenesis of enterovirus A71 infection
Siti Naqiah Amrun, Jeslin J. L. Tan, Natasha Y. Rickett, Jonathan A. Cox, Bernett Lee, Michael J. Griffiths, Tom Solomon, David Perera, Mong How Ooi, Julian A. Hiscox & Lisa F. P. Ng
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), caused by enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), presents mild to severe disease, and sometimes fatal neurological and respiratory manifestations. However, reasons for the severe pathogenesis remain undefined. To investigate this, infection and viral kinetics of EV-A71 isolates from clinical disease (mild, moderate and severe) from Sarawak, Malaysia, were characterised in human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD), neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). High resolution transcriptomics was used to decipher EV-A71-host interactions in PBMCs. Ingenuity analyses revealed similar pathways triggered by all EV-A71 isolates, although the extent of activation varied. Importantly, several pathways were found to be specific to the severe isolate, including triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1) signalling. Depletion of TREM-1 in EV-A71-infected PBMCs with peptide LP17 resulted in decreased levels of pro-inflammatory genes for the moderate and severe isolates. Mechanistically, this is the first report describing the transcriptome profiles during EV-A71 infections in primary human cells, and the potential involvement of TREM-1 in the severe disease pathogenesis, thus providing new insights for future treatment targets.
2. Diagnostic and Host Response